By Martin Glassner
This research is an outgrowth of an curiosity within the query of entry to the ocean built through the writer in the course of a ten-month sojourn in the course of 1962 and 1963 as American Vice Consul in Antofagasta, Chile. in this interval he had the chance to go to Peru 3 times and Bolivia two times. This event, supplemented by means of learn in lots of libraries in long island, Washington and California and by means of interviews, records and different reference fabrics, led to an in depth examine of Bolivia's crusade for an outlet to the ocean. 1 the current learn has drawn a few fabric from the sooner one, yet is such an complex growth of it that it may good be thought of a unconditionally new attempt. the hassle used to be made as the challenge of entry to the ocean has develop into extra severe because the moment international conflict because the emphasis on exchange and monetary improvement has grown whereas whilst many new land-locked states have been being born. There have, furthermore, been extra threatened and real interferences with loose transit in this interval than throughout the previous part century and extra. a radical exam of the topic appeared so as, then, as an reduction to an figuring out of the issues concerned and as a consultant to destiny makes an attempt to unravel them. as well as a basic survey of the query, 3 case stories were incorporated either as illustrations of a lot of those difficulties and as particular occasions wherein to check proposed solutions.
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Additional info for Access to the Sea for Developing Land-Locked States
His conclusions are presented here in full: 1. The main significance of the 1965 U. N. Conference which hammered out this Convention was that the problems which transit involves for landlocked States, their coastal neighbours and "third countries" were for the first time discussed at an international plenipotentiary level. These problems have thus acquired, as it were, "status" on the world scene. 2. Having acquired such status, those transit problems, especially of the developing land-locked countries, will probably appear more frequently on the international scene, for example, UNCTAD.
Of these, corridors were considered ad hoc arrangements which might be arrived at by negotiation but were not suitable for regulation by the world community. While they may assure a mediterranean state of access to the sea, they raise questions of self-determination for peoples living in such corridors and rights of transit across the corridors themselves. Again, the Polish Corridor is the classic horrible example. 8 None has actually been created, as such, in more than forty years and it seems unlikely that any will in the foreseeable future.
3), 7 December and 1 December 1964. DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL LAW 35 The Committee's discussions, as might be expected, were both broad and detailed, ranging from the Committee's terms of reference and the proper degree of adherence to the Barcelona Convention, through the question of including arms and ammunition as "goods in transit," to such details as the proper length of time goods in transit could be stored without charges. Every viewpoint was well represented, including those of the United States, the USSR, and the General Legal Division of the United Nations Secretariat.
Access to the Sea for Developing Land-Locked States by Martin Glassner