Download e-book for kindle: Afghanistan Cave Complexes 1979-2004 by Mir Bahmanyar

By Mir Bahmanyar

ISBN-10: 184176776X

ISBN-13: 9781841767765

Following the Soviet invasion in 1979, the Mujahideen defenders of Afghanistan built and bolstered many usual cave structures to take advantage of as offer bases and protective positions. The Taliban and Al Qaeda extra constructed those positions during the Nineteen Nineties. Following the occasions of September eleven, 2001, those cave structures have once again come to prominence and websites akin to Tora Bora ("Black Dust," a sequence of person caves) and Zhawar Kili (a huge advanced in jap Afghanistan) have featured in information headlines world wide. This identify presents an in depth research and visible documentation of those caves and underground platforms. It additionally discusses the Coalition's tactical method of dislodging the enemy from those fortified positions.

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Timur began his attack in March 1398 by crossing the Indus. By September he had defeated many local Hindu rulers. He then captured Multan and ravaged the Punjab. In December 1398 he found himself in front of Delhi facing Nasir al-Din Mahmud Tuqhluq’s army. The Tuzuk-i Timuri, or chronicle of Timur, gives Mahmud’s strength as including 10,000 cavalry, 40,000 infantry, and 125 armored elephants; no figures are given for Timur’s forces. Timur first launched his right wing against Mahmud’s left wing, which was defeated after a bloody battle.

The core of the Mughal military, however, was inextricably interwoven and indeed sustained by the mansabdari system. The imperial treasury paid the mansabdars a salary to maintain their soldiers as well as their personal lifestyles and status, which determined their rank, or zat. In the eleventh year of Akbar’s reign, he instituted a second rank (and salary) known as the sowar rank, which specifically stated the number of horses and amount of equipment each mansabdar had to maintain. He based the sowar gradations upon the number of soldiers each mansabdar was allowed to recruit, ranging from a low of 10 to a high of 10,000 men.

The Mongols, however, eventually retreated from the field. Details are sketchy, 29 Warfare in Medieval India but Alauddin used war elephants, which were part of the force under Zafar Khan that the Mongols cut off and destroyed. ’’ In 1303 another large Mongol force, led by Targhi Beg (the same warrior who killed Zafar Khan), laid siege to Delhi while Alauddin was busy besieging the Rajput fortress of Chittor. Delhi, however, withstood the attack, giving Alauddin time to organize his forces and plan for the inevitable confrontation.

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Afghanistan Cave Complexes 1979-2004 by Mir Bahmanyar

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