By Karen A. Feste (auth.)
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Extra resources for America Responds to Terrorism: Conflict Resolution Strategies of Clinton, Bush, and Obama
33) recommends reflexive reframing, a process in which disputants speak about their essential concerns, needs, values, and sense of threat to their identity as a way to “transform the frame of their conflict from one of antagonism to one that resonates” the deeper sense of identity concerns expressed by narratives of significant history and events. It means going beneath the surface of parties’ own reality to articulate deep needs and values at stake in the conflict. The process demands that opponents work to uncover their underlying values, priorities, and motivations in order to know why they seek particular conflict outcomes, that is, why they believe their goals will satisfy their wants and needs.
Presidential administration’s War on Terror had four themes: good versus evil, civilization versus barbarism, the nature of the new enemy, and the nature of the war, noting that although the first two elements made it into press accounts of the president’s speech or actions for about two months after the 9/11 attacks, the press underplayed these elements after that, even though Bush repeatedly stressed them. W. Bush first tried to rally public support for American military intervention by stating that Saddam Hussein was threatening the United States by choking off our oil lifeline.
Prospect theory is a theory of decision making under conditions of risk: decisions are based on judgments and judgments are assessments on the external state of the world. Prospect theory reintroduces the definition of the situation into the analysis of decision making. McDermott (1998) and Choi and Roskos-Ewoldwen (2004) provide further evidence for framing effects in historical cases and laboratory settings. How leaders attempt to sell and maintain risky status quo changing policies to their domestic constituencies is examined by Mackiewicz-Wolfe (2005) through a framing lens.
America Responds to Terrorism: Conflict Resolution Strategies of Clinton, Bush, and Obama by Karen A. Feste (auth.)