By Gary (Ed.) Haynes, Gary Haynes
The quantity comprises summaries of evidence, theories, and unsolved difficulties touching on the unexplained extinction of dozens of genera of as a rule huge terrestrial mammals, which happened ca. 13,000 calendar years in the past in North the USA and approximately 1,000 years later in South the United States. one other both mysterious wave of extinctions affected huge Caribbean islands round 5,000 years in the past. The coupling of those extinctions with the earliest visual appeal of humans has resulted in the advice that foraging people are responsible, even if significant climatic shifts have been additionally happening within the Americas in the course of a few of the extinctions. The final released quantity with comparable (but no longer exact) subject matters -- Extinctions in close to Time -- seemed in 1999; for the reason that then loads of leading edge, fascinating new examine has been performed yet has now not but been compiled and summarized. varied chapters during this quantity offer in-depth resum?s of the chronology of the extinctions in North and South the United States, the prospective insights into animal ecology supplied by means of reviews of reliable isotopes and anatomical/physiological features reminiscent of development increments in tremendous and mastodont tusks, the clues from taphonomic learn approximately large-mammal biology, the functions of relationship ways to the extinctions debate, and archeological controversies relating human looking of enormous mammals.
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Additional resources for American Megafaunal Extinctions at the End of the Pleistocene (Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology)
10,900 BP, but so does Shawnee-Minisink in eastern Pennsylvania (Dent, 1999). Shawnee-Minisink is now the most precisely dated Clovis site: 10,935 ± 15 BP, by averaging of several dates on burnt seeds (Waters and Stafford, 2007). The corridor seems now to have opened some time prior to 11,000 BP (contra Arnold, 2002). Recent tentative identification of elk (wapiti, Cervus elaphus) antler “foreshafts” (their presumed function) in the Anzick infant burial in Montana suggests that elk and other large mammals could have traversed the corridor at the same time that humans did.
12,500 cal bp), Uruguay, and Argentina. Late dates from Brazil include: 9,580 ± 200 BP on charcoal associated with the sloth, Catonyx cuvieri, at Lapa Vermelha IV; another date on bone for C. cuvieri of 9,990 ± 40 BP; and a collagen date of 9,260 ± 150 BP for the only South American sabertooth species, Smilodon populator (Neves and Pilo, 2003). At Pay Paso 1 in Uruguay, a date of ca. 9,100 BP is reported for charcoal from a late fishtail assemblage associated with bones of glyptodont and possibly equid (Suarez, 2003).
Warm Holocene), with a gradual transition at about 10,000 BP. , 1997), pointed to the change to less equable climate in the early Holocene – warmer summers, colder winters – as a cause of vegetation change and faunal extinction. However, our understanding of late Pleistocene climate change has been profoundly altered in the last decade by new data from the Greenland ice core projects (GISP2, GRIP, and NGRIP). Abrupt and sharp warming and cooling episodes – glacials and interglacials and shorter stadials and interstadials – occurred repeatedly throughout the late Pleistocene.
American Megafaunal Extinctions at the End of the Pleistocene (Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology) by Gary (Ed.) Haynes, Gary Haynes