By John Braithwaite, Valerie Braithwaite, Michael Cookson, Leah Dunn
Indonesia suffered an explosion of spiritual violence, ethnic violence, separatist violence, terrorism, and violence by way of legal gangs, the safety forces and militias within the past due Nineties and early 2000s. through 2002 Indonesia had the worst terrorism challenge of any country. these kinds of different types of violence have now fallen dramatically. How used to be this comprehensive? What drove the increase and the autumn of violence? Anomie concept is deployed to give an explanation for those advancements. surprising institutional swap on the time of the Asian monetary predicament and the autumn of President Suharto intended the principles of the sport have been up for grabs. Valerie Braithwaite’s motivational postures thought is used to provide an explanation for the gaming of the foundations and the disengagement from authority that happened in that period. eventually resistance to Suharto laid a starting place for dedication to a revised, extra democratic, institutional order. The peacebuilding that happened used to be no longer in line with the high-integrity truth-seeking and reconciliation that was once the normative choice of those authors. relatively it used to be in keeping with non-truth, occasionally lies, and but tremendous reconciliation. This poses a problem to restorative justice theories of peacebuilding.
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Additional info for Anomie and Violence: Non-truth and Reconciliation in Indonesian Peacebuilding
The situation in Indonesia in 1998 was that the old rules were swept away for a period. What the new rules of the game would be was up for grabs. From 2004, Mietzner (2009:377) saw a new consolidation of the polity, whereby the norms of democratic competition were clarified in new sets of legal regulations, providing alternative institutional mechanisms to resolve disputes not only between state institutions, but also between powerful civilian groups. This, in turn, helped reduce the tendency of civilian leaders to mobilise their masses against opponents, and consequently undermined the position of the armed forces as conflict mediators.
In other words, structural facts of the past often become part of a well-crafted identity politics of peace and reconciliation. The remainder of this chapter will discuss the major findings of the book in terms of the themes of anomie and reconciliation. The next four sections give some specificity to what an opportunity-theory formulation of anomie means. ). Then we flesh out more fully how a Mertonian version of anomie theory makes sense in the Indonesian cases. The section after that considers the military opportunity structure as that site of anomie and opportunity that is particularly strategic in Indonesian conflict.
When the New Order collapsed, there were various factions within the military. Some generals wanted the military to step back from its political role and submit to democratically elected leaders. Others wanted to destabilise the emerging Indonesian democracy and reassert political control by the military elite through physical intimidation. Others simply wanted to exploit the climate of instability to make money by demanding protection payments from frightened people or by selling weapons or ammunition.
Anomie and Violence: Non-truth and Reconciliation in Indonesian Peacebuilding by John Braithwaite, Valerie Braithwaite, Michael Cookson, Leah Dunn