By Christian Soutou
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Extra info for Apprendre SQL avec MySQL : avec 40 exercices corrigés
2. The clauses must always be used in the order given above. You cannot, for example, put ORDER BY immediately after SELECT, or immediately before GROUP BY. However, you can of course leave out the WHERE, GROUP BY and HAVING clauses altogether, and have ORDER BY immediately following FROM. 3. HAVING should only be used if there is also a GROUP BY clause. (The ANSI standard does actually allow HAVING to be used without GROUP BY, but this then makes it equivalent to WHERE. 3 Using SELECT Now that you have an idea of the scope of SELECT, let us look in more detail at what ea~h element of the statement can be used to achieve.
1 The example system Let us take a system that tracks a salesman's performance against a target. 2 The 'first stab' table Most users do not automatically consider the data from which they run their business as lending itself easily to being split up into different units - or tables. They view the data which is important to tham as a logical whole. Most first-time users of relational database systems will attempt to. put all data into one large table. For example, the initial reaction of the user of the sales system might be to use CREATE TABLE to set up a table with the following columns (holding each salesman's •personal ' details, their quarterly targets, and the customer details for every contract that the salesman makes): Creating a table CREATE TABLE salesmen (surname char(20); firstname char(lS) , empno chartS) NOT NULL, address char(30) , telephone char (12) , q1target number (6) , q2target number (6) , q3target number (6) , q4target number (6) , c1custname char (30) , c1custadd char(30) , c1amount number (6) , An example of setting up an SQL system 19 c1date date, c2custname char(30) , c2custadd char(30) , c2amount number (6) , c2date date, c3custname.
Empno Surname Qltarget Region ------------------------------------- 10001 40004 20002 30003 50005 Smith Jones Brown Adams James 50000 25000 40000 50000 60000 East West East South East When you use multiple tables, you may find it useful to set up aliases for table names - usually shorter names by which you can refer to your tables for the duration of the query. We deal with multiple tables and aliases in chapter 6. 3. WHERE condition A WHERE condition is used to restrict the rows which appear in the result table.
Apprendre SQL avec MySQL : avec 40 exercices corrigés by Christian Soutou