By Alan Poling, Henry Schlinger, Stephen Starin, Elbert Blakely
Psychology: A Behavioral evaluate is an introductory textual content with an orienting in line with spective that's frankly behavioral instead of eclectic. This concentration is made really transparent within the first bankruptcy of the publication, yet within the the rest it additionally turns into transparent that any such concentration allows assurance of lots of the issues present in the extra universal introductory textual content. truly, the subsequent 5 chapters (dealing with psy chology as a scienc~, method, evolution, body structure, and studying) are in lots of methods reminiscent of the remedies supplied in additional eclectic introductory texts. The behavioral concentration and the departure from conventional techniques be come most vital within the final six chapters which take care of conventional psycho logical themes (e. g. , language, baby improvement, and personality)-but take care of them systematically by way of the ideas and rules brought within the chapters on evolution and body structure, and particularly within the bankruptcy on studying. utilizing the innovations supplied early within the textual content to interpret advanced facets of human habit presents helpful justification for these suggestions, in addition to a chance for more suitable knowing of them. even though scholars won't make vast touch with the range of the oretical methods present in the common textual content, they'll develop into in particular compe tent within the use of behavioral thoughts and rules to interpret and comprehend the various subject matters of conventional value in psychology.
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Extra resources for Psychology: A Behavioral Overview
In holding that promise, a scientific psychology is superior to its competitors. Inadequate Explanations of Behavior We have previously discussed how scientists attempt to explain events of interest, namely, by determining functional relations among those events and other variables. There are, of course, many other kinds of explanations, and some of them are often applied to behavior. The purpose of this section is to explore types of explanations that are fundamentally inadequate. Though the problems with these types of explanations become apparent on close scrutiny, they are so common that few recognize them as flawed.
As discussed in Chapter 3, in psychology functional relations are usually demonstrated through experimentation in which the researcher manipulates the value of one variable (termed the independent variable) and determines whether doing so changes the value of another variable (termed the dependent variable). If the value of the dependent variable varies systematically with the 23 CHARACI'ERISTICS OF SCIENCE 24 2. SCIENCE AND PSYCHOLOGY value of the independent variable, the two are functionally related.
Evolution, which acts at the level of genetic material, has determined the behavioral characteristics, as well as the physical structure, of every species. Chapter 4 is devoted entirely to evolution and genetic variables as they relate to behavior. Myth 3: Behaviorists consider physiological variables unimportant. Again, not so. Behaviorists recognize that everything an organism does is determined by physiological processes. For example, when a child learns to recite the alphabet, there undoubtedly are changes in the central nervous system that parallel the changes in behavior.
Psychology: A Behavioral Overview by Alan Poling, Henry Schlinger, Stephen Starin, Elbert Blakely